Prior examination and identification of a disease even when no symptoms exist among a group of people in order to look for any symptoms before the disease starts existing and also for early treatment so that it can be cured properly is called screening. In brief screening helps to find breast cancer even before the symptoms are noticed for it. Breast cancer screening is done through mammography, most of the middle age women and women above 40 are suggested to go through mammography screening and also to have a talk on its benefits and drawbacks as well as risks of breast cancer and the proper healthcare that must be followed to minimise the risk of getting breast cancer. Women above 50 are suggested to go through mammography screening with a gap of 2 years.
Mammography is of two types one is screening mammography which is done for the identification of breast cancer symptoms in women with no signs of it at present and diagnostic mammography is done for diagnosis among women with signs of breast cancer
Scientific evidence reveal that regular screening through mammograms has lowered the number of deaths due to breast cancer. Just like every other test have their pros and cons, mammography does have pros and cons. Some of the benefits of screening is obtaining a normal result, assurance of not having breast cancer, for early detection so that proper treatment and complete recovery can be obtained in less time, early detection helps in identification of better treatment options and greater survival rates. Drawbacks of screening may include false positive test in younger women i.e., even if they don’t have breast cancer the screening shows existence of cancer, sometimes it may show false negative test i.e., it won’t detect the breast cancer even if it is existing, over diagnosis i.e., reporting of breast cancer as life threatening whereas it was not and adding up of the harmfulness of radiations due to regular screenings.
As symptoms help in identifying a disease, diagnosis helps in finding out the cause of a disease. In order to properly identify and confirm a disease the diagnosis process includes in detailed study of symptoms along with many other test like health history, physical examination, diagnostic mammography, ultrasound, biopsy of both breast tissue or lymph, hormone receptor status testing, HER2 status testing, complete blood count, blood chemistry test, tumour marker test, X-ray, bone scan, MRI, scintimammography, and ductography.
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