A particular health condition, behaviour or any substance which contributes to the development of cancer are considered as risk factors of that disease. Most of the cancers are the outcome of these risk factors and many of them have still developed in the absence of these risk factors.
The risk factors include
(a) Dense breast- Dense breast is an inherited trait in which the breast consists of more connective tissue, glands and milk ducts than the fatty tissue. Women those possess dense breast are 6 times more likely to develop breast cancer then women with less or no breast tissue. Breast density is determined through mammography.
(b) Reproductive history- It takes into consideration the normal biological processes like early menarche, late menopause, late pregnancy or no pregnancies. These three processes are taken into consideration in order to determine how long the breast cells were exposed to estrogen. Estrogen is the main hormone related with breast cancer as it affects the growth of breast cells hence also plays important role in the growth of breast cancer cells. The onset of menstruation is called menarche and if this happens at an early age of 11 or 12 or even younger age it is called as early menarche. Early onset of menarche indicated that the breast cells are exposed to estrogen and other hormones for a longer time hence contributing to the risk of breast cancer. Menopause is when a woman stops menstruating and it occurs when ovaries stop producing hormones i.e., estrogen and progesterone and hence the level of hormones in the body drop. If menopause is attained at a later stage, then it shows that the breast cells have been exposed to estrogen and other hormones for a greater time hence increases the risk of breast cancer. Pregnancy reduces the exposure of estrogen to the breast cells and it also lowers the total number of menstrual cycles of a woman. Women with late pregnancy i.e., after age of 30 show higher risk of breast cancer than in women with pregnancy at early stage. No pregnancy or nulliparity has the higher risk of breast cancer. Other risk factors include exposure to ionizing radiations, use of oral contraceptives, habits of smoking and consuming alcohols, personal breast cancer history, family history of breast cancer or other cancers, BRCA gene mutations and other genetic mutations, existence of certain genetic conditions, physical inactivity and obese in weight.
Family history of breast cancer, Personal History of breast cancer, BRCA genes and mutations, tumour suppressor genes and their mechanism of function, Gene mutations and other related cancers, Breast density, reproductive history, smoking and alcohol, exposure to radiations, use of oral contraceptive pills,
Oncology (breast cancer) Students, Scientists and Researchers and Academicians, Doctors, radiologist, oncology therapist, Breast cancer Associations and Foundations, Medical Institutes, Medical Devices Manufacturing Companies, Young Research fellow, Healthcare and Pharmaceutical Industries.
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