The most initial step for treating breast cancer is breast surgery, there are different types of breast surgery which depends on the location and size of the breast tumour, its metastasis and also on size of the breast. The surgical procedure involves removal of the tumour and its surrounding marginal tissue which might be cancerous where as in severe cases in involves removal of the entire breast. The surgery types include mastectomy, lumpectomy or breast- conserving surgery and lymph node surgery.
Lumpectomy or breast conserving surgery aims on conserving much of the breast part by simply removing the tumour and its marginal healthy cells and then followed by radiation therapy to rule out the cancer cells around the margins.
Mastectomy involves removal of the entire breast when the tumour has spread to other parts of the breast. Sometimes even after lumpectomy and radiation therapy if the cancer comes back in the breast then again mastectomy is carried out. There are different types of mastectomy
(a)Total mastectomy- The entire breast and the tissue covering the chest muscles are removed leaving behind the lymph nodes, nerves, and the muscles.
(b) Modified radical mastectomy-The entire breast, the tissue covering the chest muscles, nipple, most of the lymph nodes are removed and nerves and other muscles are left.
It is defined by the type of instrument used and the steps involved in the surgical methods. Based on the steps and instruments there are many types of techniques which include radiofrequency ablation, cryosurgery, electro surgery, radiosurgery, endoscopic surgery, robotic surgery, laser surgery, Mohs surgery, Stereotactic surgery, percutaneous ethanol injection, use of high-intensity focused ultrasound.
There are two ways in which a surgery can be performed one is open surgery and other is minimally invasive surgery. Open surgery uses a wide incision or cut whereas the later one uses a small incision to reach the targeted area and remove or repair the tissue. Open surgery is the traditional or conventional method whereas the later one uses special instruments such as endoscope. Fast recovery is observed in minimally invasive surgery than in open surgery.
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