Breast cancer occur very rarely in men. Breast in men are less developed than in women. Breast cancer which occur in men are of ductal carcinoma type, in this type cancer starts developing in the gland cells within the lining of a duct. These tumours are further classified as invasive or non-invasive, where invasive means the cancer cells has started developing through the wall of the duct and has spread into the surrounding tissue and non-invasive is when the cancer cells have not developed beyond the ducts. In men most of the ductal carcinomas are of invasive type and other types are very rare. The cancer cells grow through the duct, sometimes these cells continue to grow and form a lump in the breast, and can also spread to the lymph nodes and other parts of the body.
Symptoms include the same as in women like occurrence of a lump in the breast, inverted nipple, nipple discharge, presence of rash around a nipple which doesn’t fade away, hardening or reddishness or swelling of nipple or surrounding skin, swollen glands or small bumps in the armpit.
Breast cancer in men is treated the same way as in women, and these include mastectomy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and some other medications. Most of the men who developed breast cancer went through mastectomy followed by radiation or chemotherapy.
Breast cancer in men can be caused due to existence of some risk factors like inheritance of faulty genes called BRCA1 and BRCA2, family history of breast cancer, exposure to radiations and existence of other health conditions which increases the level of oestrogen in the body like Klinefelter syndrome, liver cirrhosis, gynecomastia and obesity.
Diagnosis of breast cancer is done through mammography, ultrasound, biopsy, hormone receptor status testing, HER2 status testing along with other basic tests.
Statistics of 5-year relative survival show that 96% of men survived when they were diagnosed in stage 1, 84% survival for stage 2 diagnosis, 52% survival for stage 3 diagnosis and 24% survival for stage 4 diagnosis.
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