Breast cancer is the most common invasive cancer in women and the second main cause of cancer death in women. For better understanding of what is breast cancer one should know the breast cancer symptoms, breast cancer facts, causes of breast cancer. This session is all about the symptoms, causes, facts and other relevant information about breast cancer which will be delivered by breast oncologist and doctors.
Classification of breast cancer in based on the region of development of the tumor, its nature and also by the specific cells in the breast that are affected. This session includes in detailed explanations and discussions about the types of breast cancer which are Ductal carcinoma in situ, invasive ductal carcinoma, lobular carcinoma and other types likes inflammatory breast cancer, Paget disease of the nipple, Phyllodes tumor, Angiosarcoma. This session on types of breast cancer will be making you aware of the types of breast cancer diagnosed in women and which will be explained by various breast oncologist and doctors.
Screening and diagnosis are done by self-examination of breast, mammography, ultra sound testing, MRI scan and biopsy. Diagnosis helps in staging the cancer by determining the tumor size, how far it has spread, whether it is invasive or non-invasive, whether it has metastasized, or spread to other parts of the body. Doctors, radiologist and specialized oncologist in the field of breast cancer will be demonstrating about different screening procedures and will be explaining the self-examination steps and also suggesting about the best methods for proper diagnosis and screening.
Breast cancer stages are diagnosis based which is according to the size of the tumor, whether it has spread to lymph nodes or other parts of the body. It describes how much cancer is in the body and helps in determining the seriousness of cancer. Some of the staging systems are 0-4th stage system and another one is TNM system.
Surgery includes mastectomy, lumpectomy, and breast conserving surgery depending upon the cancer stage and other risk factors. Surgical oncologist and radiologist will be explaining about how breast cancer is staged, what are the surgery types and best surgical procedure to be preferred by a patient, as well as medication and care to be followed by the patient after surgery.
Research and clinical trials have helped in the progress of treatment of cancers. Clinical trials are designed to find whether new approaches are safe and effective. At present a lot of research is being carried out on breast cancer in different parts of the world, different scientist and researchers are involved in exploring and innovating new ways with different hypothesis as well as experimenting with newly invented drugs for treatment. Researchers will be revealing out different research going on in the respective field and also about the clinical trials of newly invented drugs.
Emotional issues like depression, anxiety and fear arise in women during treatment as well as after treatment. In younger breast cancer survivors, changes in appearance and sexuality have been stressful and for some women chemotherapy has caused early menopause which is very distressing on its own. Being diagnosed with breast cancer, it leaves a devastating effect on the mental health of women, and also makes difficult for women to cope up with it.
Lifestyle of people tells about their health, like the food habits, sleep, exercise, body weight, alcohol consumption, work culture. Lifestyle factors also affect the risk of breast cancer. So patients need a proper guidance for a proper recovery and prevention from reoccurrence of breast cancer or any other complications.
Research in breast cancer has helped in the advancement of understanding breast cancer and has provided innovative approaches for its management. A current and emerging perspective on genetics, biology, pathology, imaging, oncological surgery, plastic surgery and reconstructive surgery has contributed to recent progress in research.
Treatment depends on the type of cancer, the individual patient and its stage. It involves surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy and hormone therapy. Doctors should be able to give someone a clear description of the type of breast cancer along with the treatments options that are appropriate to one’s case.
Targeted drugs are designed to block the growth and spread of cancer cells. These drugs work differently from chemotherapy drugs, which attack all cells that are growing quickly (including cancer cells). Targeted drugs sometimes work even when chemo drugs do not. Some targeted drugs can help other types of treatment work better. Targeted drugs also tend to have different side effects than chemo.
About 80% of all breast cancers are invasive ductal carcinomas. Invasive means that the cancer has “invaded” or spread to the surrounding breast tissues. Ductal means that the cancer began in the milk ducts, which are the “pipes” that carry milk from the milk-producing lobules to the nipple. It refers to cancer that has broken through the wall of the milk duct and begun to invade the tissues of the breast.
It tells the probability of a person getting affected by breast cancer. It includes age, family history, personal history, menstruation, breast tissue, lifestyle, and race.
BReast CAncer genes (BRCA genes) are of two types BRCA1 and BRCA2 which are found in every human being. These genes have been found to impact a person’s chances of developing breast cancer as they normally play a big role in preventing breast cancer by repairing the DNA breaks that lead to cancer and the uncontrolled growth of tumors. These genes don’t work properly when they undergo mutations. It is important to have an understanding of the pathologic features and the natural history of BRCA-associated breast cancers in order that individualized treatments can be developed and delivered. The goals of treatment for a woman with a BRCA-associated breast cancer should be to prevent recurrence of the initial cancer and to prevent second primary breast cancers.
Sometimes the pathology report shows that the breast cancer cells tested negative for estrogen receptors (ER-), progesterone receptors (PR-), and HER2 (HER2-). Testing negative for all three means the cancer is triple-negative. These negative results mean that the growth of the cancer is not supported by the hormones estrogen and progesterone, or by the presence of too many HER2 receptors. Therefore, triple-negative breast cancer does not respond to hormonal therapy.
There are misconceptions among people about breast cancer. By interacting with the respective doctors through rising queries and portraying the misconceptions, the persisting myths can be cleared.
People today are aware of the issues associated with breast cancer. Breast cancer awareness efforts have helped people learn what their risk factors are, how they can reduce their level of risk, what symptoms they should look for and what kind of screening they should be getting. Breast health education must make a girl/woman completely aware of the preventive methods in order to reduce the risk factors. The Breast Health Education Program empowers women to take control of their health by educating them about their body and providing important breast cancer resources.
There are both survivors and sufferers of breast cancer. Case studies are meant to broaden the knowledge about breast cancer regarding to the nursing interventions and medical management. It includes in detailed study of a patient with various assessment strategies which includes present illness, past medical history, family medical history, gynecological and social history.
Genetics help in determining the risk of breast cancer. Close relative who has/had breast cancer have the higher risk, women who carry the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes have higher risk. Another gene is TP53. These genes are inherited.
Reconstruction recreates the breast so that it looks similar to the other breast. This can be done at the same time of surgery (mastectomy) or at later phase. Breast reconstruction depends on your age, body type, and treatment plan. Some of the methods of breast reconstruction are Women with cosmetic breast implants are diagnosed with higher risk.
Breast anatomy helps in understanding different parts and functions of the breast as well as to grasp better details of tumor development and breast cancer.
Breast cancer can also occur in men, which is usually very rare. It is commonly seen in older men but it can occur at any age. Early stage diagnosis of breast cancer in men has a good chance for cure.
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